Shoulder strength values and ratio for swimmers without pain

Normative values of shoulder strength and ratios that may help guide our rehab

Shoulder pain is common among swimmers and subsequently has attracted various types of studies on the topic.

More well-known proposed mechanisms for shoulder pain in swimmers include factors like: shoulder muscle weakness, strength imbalance between the external rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR), training load and past history of shoulder injury.

Rather than observing subjects with pain, this study examined subjects without pain (in the past 2 months) to establish normative data.


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