Analysis of arm elevation muscle activity through different movement planes and speeds during in-water and dry-land exercise
This study investigated EMG activity during shoulder elevation in flexion, abduction and scaption in water and on land, and at different speeds (30/sec, 45/sec and 90/sec).
Muscle activity levels were significantly lower in water compared with dry land at 30/sec and 45/sec but significantly higher at 90/sec. This sequential progressive activation with increased movement speed was proportionally higher on transition from gravity-resisted on-land activity to in-water isokinetic resistance.
These findings on muscle activation suggest protocols in which active flexion is introduced first at low speeds (30/sec) in water, then at medium speeds (45/sec) in water or on dry land, and finally at high speeds (90/sec) on dry land before in water. Abduction requires higher stabilization, necessitating its introduction after flexion, with scaption introduced last.
This model ensures that early active motion and then stabilization are appropriately introduced in a progressive, sequential manner whilst ensuring patient safety. > From: Castillo-Lozano, et al. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 23 (2014) 159-166.
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