Shoulder muscle activation in closed kinetic chain exercises

How do muscle activation levels differ between closed kinetic chain exercises with and without stable surface?

Exercises targeting the middle (MT) and lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) with low activation levels of the upper trapezius (UT) and other major muscle groups are often advocated in the rehabilitation of shoulder pathologies. On top of that, closed kinetic chain exercises trigger mechanoreceptors and elicit activity in the stabilizing muscles around the shoulder complex.


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